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The grateful King bestowed the motto "Fortiter Defendit Triumphans" ("Triumphing by a brave defence") upon the town.
Charles I was imprisoned in Newcastle by the Scots in 1646–7.
Newcastle's economy includes corporate headquarters, learning, digital technology, retail, tourism and cultural centres, from which the city contributes £13 billion towards the United Kingdom's GVA.
Among its icons are Newcastle United football club and the Tyne Bridge.
He was persuaded to sail a shipment of coal to Newcastle by merchants plotting to ruin him; however his shipment arrived on the Tyne during a strike that had crippled local production; unexpectedly he made a considerable profit.
The first recorded settlement in what is now Newcastle was Pons Aelius, a Roman fort and bridge across the River Tyne.
The population of Pons Aelius then is estimated at 2,000.
Fragments of Hadrian's Wall are visible in parts of Newcastle, particularly along the West Road.
From 1530, a royal act restricted all shipments of coal from Tyneside to Newcastle Quayside, giving a monopoly in the coal trade to a cartel of Newcastle burgesses known as the Hostmen.
This monopoly, which lasted for a considerable time, helped Newcastle prosper and develop into a major town.